Chp 7--- OB
The job characteristics model or JCM suggests that any job can be described in terms of five core job dimensions: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback are motivating job characteristics. From a motivational standpoint, the JCM says that internal rewards are obtained by individuals when they learn that they personally have performed well on a task that they care about. The core dimensions can be combined into a single predictive index, called the motivating potential score (MPS). If jobs score high on motivating potential, the model predicts that motivation, performance, and satisfaction will be positively affected and that the likelihood of absence and turnover will be lessened.
If employees suffer from over reutilization of their work, managers may consider job rotation, job enlargement, or job enrichment. Job rotation (or cross-training) is the periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another. Job rotation reduces boredom and increases motivation through diversifying the employee’s activities. It also has indirect benefits for the organization because employees with a wider range of skills give management more flexibility in scheduling work, adapting to changes, and filling vacancies. Among the drawbacks of job rotation are increased training costs and potential decreases in productivity.
Job enlargement is the horizontal expansion of a job. It increases the number and variety of tasks that an individual performs results in a job with more diversity.
Job enrichment is the vertical expansion of a job, increasing the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of his or her work. An enriched job organizes tasks so that the worker completes an activity, increases the employee’s freedom and independence, increases responsibility, and provides feedback so that an individual will be able to assess and correct his or her own performance. Jobs may be enriched by...