Grade 11 University Chemistry Review

Matter and Bonding
  1. Understand the atomic models of Dalton, Thompson and Bohr-Rutherford.
  a. Dalton Atomic Model: The ‘Billiard Ball’ Model
  * All matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms.
  * All atoms of the same element are the same in mass and volume.
  * Atoms of different elements combine in small whole number ratios to form new compounds.
  b. Thompson Atomic Model: The ‘Chocolate Chip Cookie’ Model
  * The discovery of electrons: cathode ray tubes
  * The atom is a solid ball of positive charge with
negatively charged electrons embedded in it.
  * The amount of positive charge equals the amount of negative charge, so the entire atom is neutral.
  c. Rutherford Atomic Model: ‘Beehive Model’
  * The discovery of the nucleus.
  * The atom is mostly empty place.
  * Most of the mass is concentrated in a small, dense nucleus.
  * Electrons move around the nucleus like planets around the sun.
  * Discovery using the gold foil experiment: alpha particles are shot into the gold foil. Being that the atom is entirely empty space (prior knowledge), the particles should completely go through the foil. However, some bounced back, repelled. Meaning that the atom is NOT entirely an empty space. The alpha particles are positively charged, therefore, the ‘nucleus’ discovered is also positively charged.
  * The nucleus’ size is determined by the rarity of the reflected particles.
  d. Bohr Atomic Model: ‘Energy Level Model’
  * Electrons travel around the nucleus in specific energy levels.
  * The first energy level (orbit) can hold a maximum of 2 electrons. The others can hold a maximum of 8.
  e. Bohr-Rutherford Model: combination of nucleus and energy levels

  2. Outline the name, location, mass and charge of common subatomic particles.
Name | Relative Mass | Charge | Location |
Electron | 1 | 1- | On energy levels |
Proton | 1836.12 | 1+ | In the nucleus |
Neutron | 1838.65 | 0 | In the nucleus |...