Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi(2 October 1869 - 30 January 1948), also known as Gandhi, was the preeminent leader of Indian nationalism. Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for non-violence, civil rights and also freedom across the world.

Gandhi was the son of a senior government official. He was born and raised in a Hindu Bania community, and trained law in London.
Gandhi became famous by fighting for the civil rights of Muslim and Hindu Indians in South Africa, by using new techniques of non-violent civil disobidience that he developed.
When he retured to India in 1915, he set up he organized for peasants to protest excessive land-taxes. A life long opponent of communalism, he reached out widley to all religion groups. He became a leader of Muslims protesting the declining status of the Caliphate. Assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for easing poverty, expanding women's rights, building religious and ethnic amity, ending untouchability, increasing economic self-reliance, and above all for achieving the independence of India from British domination.

Gandhi led Indians in protesting the national salt tax with the 400 km Salt March in 1930, and later in demanding the British to immediately Quit India in 1942, during World War II. He was imprisoned for that and for numerous other political offenses over the years. Gandhi sought to practice non-violence and truth in all situations, and advocated that others do the same. He saw the villages as the core of the true India and promoted self-sufficiency; he did not support the industrialization programs of Jawaharlal Nehru. He lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community. His chief political enemy in Britain was Winston Churchill. He was a dedicated vegetarian, and undertook long fasts as means of both self-purification and political mobilization.

In his last year, unhappy at the partition of...