Foundations for Doctorial Study in Psychology

Activity 1.Foundations for Doctoral Study in Psychology

Analyze the major philosophical concepts of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Do you see their concepts as having relevance to the contemporary world?

The Greek philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle had similar concepts; they each viewed them according to their beliefs systems.   Socrates believes that virtue of piety, wisdom, temperance, courage and justice, and logic, were the result of people ignorance and moral deficiencies because of their lack of knowledge.   Many thought that Socrates was wise and morally good and a religious man.   Socrates believed that true wisdom is demonstrated by acquiring knowledge and moral understanding through reasoning.   Socrates challenges his students thinking by asking them questions to show the fallacies in their thinking and to cause them to reason and analyze their beliefs.  

Socrates knew he was not knowledgeable on the scriptures, but still professed himself to have superior knowledge over others.   Socrates clearly utilized wisdom as a tool in his teaching to convince others that he had knowledge superior to theirs, and he used this to test the logic of others by asking questions to make them think, and discover what their beliefs were based on.   Socrates wanted to increase their understanding of what they believed.   Socrates thought that virtue was an innate characteristic of the individual and can not be taught or learned in a classroom.   Aristotle called Socrates method of induction a defining belief system that can be acquired through knowledge from scientific methods.   Aristotle believes that virtue balances a person’s deficiencies and excessive sexual traits.   Aristotle thought that virtue was lies somewhere in the middle between the mean and the extreme, and that courage is the equivalent of cowardice and foolishness (Brakas, 1988).

Aristotle viewed virtue in ethical terms, and that virtue has to be taught at and early age to instill values...