Egyptian Revolution

Section 1: The Authoritarian Leviathan
To begin with I would like to observe the existence and demise of the Mubarak regime from the perspective of its survivalist and functionalist strategy. The Mubarak regime similar to its’ predecessors used various state institutions (e.g. party structures, political organisations, parliament, judiciary and the state security apparatus) to ensure its survival. By creating and/or augmenting these state institutions the Mubarak regime was able to create and renovate elite interest groups to help serve the stability of the authoritarian state, according to the middle east channel . These organisations were employed to reduce rival power centres by merging power in the hands of those dependent on the regime. The regime was thereby able to cripple the opposition and feed supporters by empowering a socio-political elite reluctant to push for any real change.

Throughout the history of authoritarian regimes in Egypt functionalist organisations have been created and used to establish a ruling class. Essentially individuals in these manufactured parties are raised to positions of economic or socio-political importance as a result of government patronage. As a result these parties are fundamentally government institutions representative of only the government and regime’s interests. Such elite organisations extend into various spheres of influence including business (under Sadat and Mubarak), the military, the bureaucracy and the party structure. Other elite groups used for this functional purpose include groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood (historically birthed in the regime of King Farouk to counter the Wafd and other secular parties), social (and often tribal) elite groups and alliances of workers and peasants (as employed by Nasser).

Section 1.2: State Security Apparatus
The Mubarak regime also employed what is often describes as the strategy of the “Mukhabarat state”- whereby authority is derived through fear rather than...