Dna and Protein

Running head: DNA AND PROTEIN

DNA and Protein

DNA and Protein
      Since the discovery of DNA back in 1869 by Johann Friedrich Miescher and the discovery of DNA being genetic material in the 1950’s, we have come to know that DNA is the essential building block of all living organisms.   We have also determined that DNA carries the genetic information of a cell and is located in the nucleus of the cell.   As DNA consists of thousands of genes, organized into chromosomes, each gene serves as a recipe on how to build a protein molecule.   Proteins play an essential part in the performance of proper cell function and serve as building blocks.
      Biologists have long used molecular analysis of DNA and protein sequences to test evolutionary hypotheses.   Biologists have also overwhelmingly accepted the fact that genes (DNA) and their products (proteins) are historical documents (linear sequences of nucleotides in DNA molecules) passed from parent to offspring; hence, evolutionary tape measures.   In one of the many concepts of the theory of evolution, scientists have concluded that DNA and proteins are, in fact, evolutionary tape measures.
      The question of whether scientists can prove that two kinds of animals are related by observing DNA is answered by Molecular biologist Christian Schwabe.   He writes, “Molecular evolution is about to be accepted as a method superior to paleontology for the discovery of evolutionary relationships.   As a molecular evolutionist I should be elated.   Instead it seems disconcerting that many exceptions exist in the orderly progression of species as determined by molecular homologies: so many in fact that I think the exception, the quirks, may carry the more important message.”   (, n.d., ¶ 3)
      What is certain is the apparent use of DNA studies and its effect on our Judicial, medical, pharmaceutical and agricultural communities.   Over the past decade, DNA has been used to exonerate hundreds and to convict thousands of...