Cvd Risk

This essay focuses on the case study provided (Sunil Parakh). It aims to provide the rationale for the process of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment and the risk management indicated. The author aims to discuss the recommended pharmacological and non pharmacological interventions considered as best practice.

Cardiovascular disease, also known as heart and circulatory disease, and includes, coronary heart disease (CHD), angina, heart attack and stroke. It is the most common cause of death in the United Kingdom (BHF 2010)
In 1999, the UK government acknowledged CVD as a major priority, setting targets for reducing CVD-related death rates by 2010 (DH 1999). In 2000 a National Service Framework (NSF) for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) was introduced by the Department of Health (DH) to establish clear standards for prevention and treatment of CHD and stroke, which will lead to major improvements in quality and access (DH 2000).   Allender et al (2008) states CVD attributes to 198, 000 deaths each year, more than one in three deaths (35%) are from CVD each year.   Luengo-Fernandez et al (2006) estimated annual CVD-related healthcare costs to the NHS to total £15.7 billion, representing 21% of overall NHS expenditure.

In 2008 a new initiative was introduced, an NHS Health Check for everyone between the ages of 40 and 74, who does not have existing diagnosed vascular disease, this will involve measurements of height, weight and waist circumference, Body Mass Index (BMI) calculation, blood pressure and collection of information about risk factors, such as family history, ethnicity and post code and blood tests for cholesterol and, in some cases, glucose. It will also give health care professionals an opportunity to provide education to patients who may not usually attend the surgery and to identify any concerns a patient may have. This will be calculated into a CVD risk based on 10year risk of fatal and non fatal stroke including TIA added to 10 year risk of...