Conduction System of the Heart

The Normal Conduction system of the heart

A Labelled P QRS and T wave seen on a single Lead ECG complex.

What is the heart rate in sinus rhythm?
Normal sinus rhythm is the rate of around 60 – 100 beats per minute (bpm)
What is the definition of sinus tachycardia?
Sinus tachycardia is the rhythm with an elevated amount of impulse which is greater than 100bpm.
What is the definition of sinus bradycardia?
This is a rate which originates from the sinus node which is less than 60bpm (Marleb & Holen 2007)

Atrial Fibrillation
Labelled ECG showing Atrial Fibrillation

Signs and symptoms of Atrial Fibrillation
Atrial fibrillation is the reduction heart efficiency and performance. Some people have no signs and symptoms and only are diagnosed through routine test and investigation.   But the main symptoms are of tiredness, breathlessness, dizziness and also chest pain angina.

Causes of Atrial Fibrillation
The exact causes are unknown but the main causes ischemic heart disease, acute illness, electrolyte abnormalities and also thrombosis’s (Royal Marsden 7th Edition 2010)
What treatment options are available for A.F?
Medication is a main treatment but does depend on the type and severity of A.F but beta blockers. Pacemakers and also warfrin are also treatment possibilities.

Why do patients with long term A.F require anticoagulation therapy?
The patient requires these types of medication to help slow the rate in which patients would acquire blood clots.
What is the aim of electrical cardio version?
Try to restore a normal rhythm by electric shock but would need at least 4 days administration due to blood clots being a symptom.
Acute ST elevation myocardial infarction
Name two ACE inhibitors and one thing you would need to check before administering these drugs to a patient?
Two types of ace inhibitors are captopril and also Ramipril
Also and INR test would be conducted to find out how quickly...