Computer Machinery and Intelligence

Computing Machinery and Intelligence
Alan Turing, writer of Computing Machinery and Intelligence, introduces a paper that questions if a machine “can think” by playing an experimental game which he calls the “imitation game”.
  1. The Imitation Game
The imitation game’s objective is to determine if the machine in question is capable of fooling the interrogator and if it does succeed of doing so, then it should be considered that it “can think”.
  2. Critique to the new problem
Turing states that we need not be troubled by the objection of whether the machine would actually be able to imitate the man (and vice-versa) as long as one can welcome a machine to carry out the test.
  3. The machines concerned in the game
The writer introduces the ideal machine that would be satisfactory enough to carry out the game which is the “digital computers” due to its nature and properties.
  4. Digital computers
Turing defines that the digital computer should be constructed in a way that it should be able to operate and obey the instruction tables, also known as “programming”; where then he claims that the machines are completely mechanical, and not electrical, based on Babbage’s analytical engine.
  5.   Universality of digital computers
Turing proposes that “discrete-state-machines” is a universal machine that should be used in the game but questions whether it is sufficient enough to do well in the test.
  6. Contrary views on the main question
Turing dispute certain arguments that would conflict with his ideas and findings.
  (1) The theological objection
The author opposes the Almighty’s omnipotence.
  (2) The “heads in the sand” objection

(3) The mathematical objection
(4) The argument from consciousness
(5) Arguments from various disabilities
(6) Lady Lovelace’s objection
(7) Argument from continuity in the nervous system