Cognitive Development

Physical & Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood
Chapter 14

The Transition from Adolescence to Adulthood
  • The age period from 18-25 has been labeled “emerging adulthood” as individuals have often left the dependency of childhood but have not yet assumed adult responsibilities.
  • Experimentation and exploration characterize emerging adulthood.
  • Two criteria for adult status are economic independence and independent decision making.

• The Transition from High School to College
  • There is both continuity and change in the transition from high school to college.
  • The top-dog phenomenon replays when a high school senior then becomes a freshmen in college.
  • The transition can involve positive and negative features.
  • Positive features include feeling more grownup, increased freedom, exploration of new ideas.
  • Negative features include increased stress and more depression.

• Stress
  • Stress is believed to be a major contributor to heart disease, cancer, lung problems, accidental injuries, cirrhosis of the liver, and suicide.
  • Today’s college students experience more stress and are more depressed than in the past.
  • Academic circumstances creating the most stress for students were tests and finals, grades and competition, professors and class environment, too many demands, papers and essay exams, career and future success and studying.
  • Personal circumstances causing most stress for students were intimate relationships, finances, parental conflicts and expectations, and roommate conflicts.
  • Negative ways to deal with stress:
      • Repress it so you don’t have to think about it.
      • Take it out on other people when you feel angry or depressed.
      • Keep your feelings to yourself.
      • Tell yourself the problem will go away.
      • Refuse to believe what is happening.
      • Try to reduce the tension by drinking and eating more.
  • Positive ways to deal with stress:
      • See...