The Industrial Revolution was an era of human labor being replaced with machines. This resulted in many social consequences significantly child labor and urbanization. Before the new era began in the beginning of the 19th century families commonly worked in the home while they raised their children. Factories replaced this laid back work life and parents started working alongside their children. “Because of their nimble fingers and slight physique, children constituted ideal labour.” (Honeyman, 2008) Parents could refuse to have their children work but were commonly threatened with taking away of their own wages. Discipline for poor quality work involved beatings and in some instances sexual abuse. The children were also subjected to long hours in the factories. (Honeyman, 2008) With the growth of factories came an explosion in the population. “In 1785, four cities in England and Scotland had populations of more than 50,000; and, the population of London in 1800 was about one million.  By 1850, London's population had reached almost 2.4 million, and there were 9 cities with a population in excess of 100,000 and 18 with populations between 50,000 and 100,000.” (Brown, 2004) This led to poor, cramped, living conditions. Health was greatly affected by sewage and trash problems.
Part B
Capitalism is where individuals privately control the production and trade of their goods and their main goal is to achieve the largest profit. During the Industrial Revolution, capitalists wanted no regulation by the government. This way they had control over what wages were paid out and did not have to worry about safety of their workers. With the creation of machinery and factories to increase production capitalists were looking for whatever ways to save money and return a larger profit. “Wage costs were minimized not just by holding wage rates down but also by replacing craft workers with less skilled and cheaper labour, as the invention of automatic machinery made this...