American Anti-Communist Propaganda in the 1960s

General Approach to Propaganda
The concept of psychological warfare and propaganda as one of its means is commonly believed to be a part of security strategies and foreign policies of almost all modern states. According to Harold D. Lasswell, „propaganda in the broadest sense is the technique of influencing human action by the manipulation of representations. These representations may take spoken, written, pictorial or musical form.”   The goal of an propagandist is then to urge his or her audience to some kind of an action that the propagandist is concerned with.
Three types of propagandistic coverage can be distinguished: white, black and grey. The author of white propaganda does not endeavour his or her identity and the consumer of this kind of propaganda is acquainted with the origin and intentions of the propagandist. On the other hand, the goal of black propaganda (sometimes also called propagandist disinformation) is to mystify the general public, while the identity of the propagandist remains hidden. The grey propaganda is then a combination of the above mentioned types.
Another division of propaganda regarding the type of the audience is also possible. The influence on domestic population is pursued by the internal propaganda (e.g. negative presentation of an enemy in the media). The external propaganda focuses on influencing the enemy state’s population or the political representatives of the opponent (e.g. leaflet actions during the World War II or the annual May Day military parades of soviet army in Moscow, that were observed by western experts and diplomats).

The key role of propaganda and psychological warfare during the Cold War is inevitable. The Cold War was an ideological, psychological, and cultural contest more than a traditional war and the American policy makers soon realized that it would be won or lost merely on the field of public opinion.
In my essay, I would like to focus on the development of the the external American...