What Is Multiple Sclerosis?

What is multiple sclerosis?
      Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease in which the nerves of the central nervous system (CNS) deteriorate. Myelin, which provides a covering for the nerves, improves the conduction of impulses along the nerves and is important for maintaining the health of the nerves. In multiple sclerosis, inflammation causes the myelin to disappear. The electrical impulses that travel along the nerves slow down meaning the nerves themselves are damaged. As more and more nerves are affected, a person experiences a progressive intrusion with functions that are controlled by the nervous system such as vision, speech, walking, writing, and memory.
What causes multiple sclerosis?
      The causes of multiple sclerosis are still unknown. In the recent years, researchers have focused on diseases of the immune system and genetic mutations for explanations. The immune system is the body's way of fighting of any disease. If triggered by pathogen, the immune system goes on the defensive and kills the disease. This depends upon rapid communication among cells of the immune system and the production of cells that can destroy the pathogen. In multiple sclerosis, researchers suspect that a virus alters the immune system so that the immune system thinks that the myelin is an intruder and attacks it. When the immune system attacks its own tissues it is called an autoimmune disease, and multiple sclerosis is believed to be a disease of autoimmunity. Some of the myelin may be repaired after the attack; some of the nerves are stripped of their myelin covering.
What are the types of multiple sclerosis?
There are three types of multiple sclerosis.
      About 65%-80% of individuals begin with relapsing-remitting (RR) MS, which is the most common type. They experience a series of attacks followed by complete or partial remission of the symptoms until a relapse occurs. It may be weeks to decades between relapses.
      Primary-progressive MS (PP-MS) is a type of...