War Wold One

· The main European countries to be considered are Russia, Austria-Hungary (till 1920s), France, Germany, Italy & GB/UK + Ireland (post 1920s).
· Other countries may be relevant to particular subjects, such as the Balkan states and the Scandinavian countries
Some observations from the course aims
1. Social Change - a major concern of the course
· Social geography = demography (population) - NOT just physical movement, but Birth, Class mobility, BOUNDARY movement
· Social Structure = CLASS - If use ‘class' be consistent -   Mittelstand is German equivalent of French petits bourgeois - the lower middle class (shopkeepers) - Working Class - White (clerical) & blue collar (manual) - Upper class - different types - Aristocrats, gentry etc - Fluid or rigid class structure [Rigid - Austria-Hungary, Nazi Germany / Fluid - interwar Britain & France]
· National cohesion - ETHNIC GROUPS and sometimes RELIGIOUS affiliation - C20th NATIONALISM has become increasingly important
· Social Reform - Political changes (Pensions), Impact of War (Widow' pensions)
· Material conditions - Standards of living (is it measurable?), Improvements to quality of life
· Role & status of women - Changes in European society, Impact of war on women, Franchise - voting rights
· High & popular culture - Art, Literature, music, film radio - elitist
· Values & institutions - Impact of Total war on politics - Parties, FranchiseNature of total war

2. Nature of total war
· Is total war a sufficient description of what happened in C20th? - How much is this applied with hindsight? How different was it to earlier wars - scale, nature, tactics & mobilisation?
· Other types of war - international (BALKANS) - Revolutionary (Russia) - use term carefully   - civil (whites vs Reds in Russia) - internal (USSR against section of population)
3. Causes of War - Why do wars occur
· Structural - Marxist view of underlying tension due to imperialism
· Ideological - eg Nazi or Soviet ideology, BUT...