Unit 8 M3

M2:compare two psychological approaches to health and social care provision

The cognitive and psychodynamic approaches have many similarities and differences; these include debates in nature and nurture, the usefulness of these approaches, deterministic and scientific/non scientific.

The psychodynamic approach takes into account both nature and nurture, however the cognitive approach has failed to recognise the influence of nature and nurture.   Freud claimed that adult personality is the product of innate drives (nature) and childhood experiences (nurture). These innate drives include the structure of the personality, Id, ego and superego as well as the psychosexual development every child passes through. If a child does not pass through these processes successfully it could lead to abnormalities in behaviour.   The cognitive approach has carried out research into intelligence but has not looked at the influence of genes in its research or environmental factors (such as wealth) that could influence intelligence.   Therefore this clearly indicates that both approaches are different in terms of nature and nurture.

The cognitive approach is useful and has been applied successfully in therapy. As one of the core assumptions of the cognitive approach is that mental processes influence our behaviour, therefore if these process are irrational this can lead to psychological problems.   Therapy, such as RET, aims to replace these irrational thoughts with more positive ones.   Engels (1994) concluded that Rational Emotive Therapy is an effective treatment for a number of different disorders. In contrast, the psychodynamic approach is useful in many different ways; it highlights the importance of childhood experiences, arguing that it is a critical period of development.   Who we become is greatly influenced by our childhood experiences. Ideas put forward by Freud have greatly influenced therapies used to treat mental disorders.   For example, Freud was the first person...