Unit 20 Nvq 3 Health and Social Care

1.1 Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites
Bacteria is a single cell micro-organism that gets its nutrition from its surroundings and can only be seen under a microscope. Viruses are disease producing agents that are smaller than bacteria. They are wrapped in a protein coating which makes them more difficult to destroy. Fungi are included in the plant kingdom but are quite different from green plants. The basic unit of a fungus is a hypha which is a hollow tube. The hyphal threads spread out over and into the food material making a visible mesh or mycelium. Some fungi mass together to create toadstools. They spread by releasing spores into the environment. Parasites are organisms that feed and are dependant of their host.

1.2 Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites
Bacteria – Lyme disease, Tuberculosis, tetanus, MRSA (methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus). Viruses – polio, Norovirus, common cold, flu, chicken pox. Fungi – tinea pinus, athletes foot, oral thrush. Paracites- worms, ticks, lice, mites.

1.3 Describe what is meant by ‘infection’ and ‘colonization’
Infection is a invasion of a host organisms bodily tissues by a disease causing organism. Colonization occurs when any one or more species populate a specific area.

1.4 Explain what is meant by ‘systemic infection’ and ‘localized infection’
Systemic infection affects a number of organs or tissues or affects the whole body for example type 2 diabetes, aids and hyper tension. Localized infection confined to one organ system or area in the body for example a abscess, boil, sprain.

1.5 Identify poor practices that may lead to the spread of infection
Not wearing personal protective equipment such as disposable gloves, disposable aprons, washing hands and disposing of clinical waste in the correct way.

2.1 Explain the conditions needed for the growth of micro-organisms
Micro-organisms need...