Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death in the world from a single infectious disease. Little is known of the pathogens that cause it and how to treat it effectively. There was a decline in tuberculosis in the United States in the last century but the disease is now increasing. This increase has multiple causes including changes in social structure in cities, HIV epidemic, and a failure by some public entities to improve their public health programs.
In the United States since 1985 there has been an increase in cases of tuberculosis. This is due largely to the increase of Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections which occurred during the same period of time. More recently there has also been an increase in the number of cases of multi drug resistant (MDR) strains of tuberculosis due to patient non compliance with medication.   M


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ycobacterium tuberculosis is the cause of TB in humans. Humans are the only known reservoir for the bacterium. Mycobacterium bovis is the etiologic agent of TB in cows and rarely in humans, but both cows and humans can serve as reservoirs. Humans can also be infected by consuming unpasteurized milk. This method of transmission can cause the development of extra pulmonary TB, as seen in history by bone infections that caused hunched backs.
Tuberculosis has two forms; latent infection and disease. In the infection form of TB the immune system is able to keep the bacteria under control. The body is able to do this by producing macrophages that surround the tubercle bacilli and form a hard shell, thereby isolating the mycobacterium...