Part 1: Option B:

In 1848 Phineas Gage suffered a traumatic brain injury during the construction of a new railroad. A large 3cm diameter tamping iron penetrated the left prefrontal lobe of his brain and in addition caused less extensive damage to the right frontal lobe.

As a result of this damage, Phineas Gage was unaffected in terms of his intellectual and linguistic abilities. However, his personality had taken a sudden change from an upstanding citizen, to an individual who could not exercise control over his emotions demonstrating a loss of his inhibitions. He was rude and offensive, and often used fowl language. The section below outlines this relationship between the brain and our behaviour.

This case suggests that with the absence of much of this area, the parts of his brain that are involved in emotions were no longer being monitored; resulting in a loss of emotional restraint. Therefore, as a consequence of his injury, Phineas Gage showed a considerable change in his personality directly after the accident; suggesting a strong link between specific areas of the brain and its relationship to behaviour.

Another example of brain damage affecting behaviour and highlighting the functions of various brain regions include stroke patients. For example, a stroke patient called HJA was studied by Riddoch and Humphreys (1987) who found that during his stroke, there was a loss of blood supply to the back of his brain (Occipital lobe) which resulted in HJA being able to recall and explain what an object such as a paintbrush is from memory; but when presented with the paintbrush visually; he could not recognize it. Therefore, HJA had lost the ability to process the ‘what’ known as object discrimination. This disorder is also known as Agnosia. Moscovitch et al (1997)   found that Agnosia sufferers had not lost the ability to recognize a familiar voice, and suffered no loss of intellectual ability, but they could not recognize a family member or familiar...