The Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution

Theme- cause and cure

Factors that influenced smallpox vaccination.

1802 Parliament gave Jenner £10, 000

1806 Parliament gave Jenner £20, 000

1840 Vaccination was made free for all infants

1853 Vaccination was made compulsory

Some people resented government interfering- attacks on personal liberty

Jenner heard from a diary maid that people who had already had cow pox did not contract small pox.   Jenner tried the first experiment on James Phipps.   It was chance that it worked.

Individual Genius
Jenner was determined to try out his ideas even though the Royal Society refused to believe them.   Jenner followed the scientific method- observe>theory>experiment found the vaccine.

Better communication allowed news of Turkish treatment of small pox, using inoculation, reach England.   Vaccination became very popular in other countries quickly.   The US president Thomas Jefferson praised Jenner.   A group of Native Americans travelled to Britain to thanks Jenner.   Napoleon released a prisoner on Jenner’s request.

Jenner was a trained doctor who had been treating small pox sufferers for a long time.

Koch and Pasteur

Factor- Government
The French and German governments were caught up in international rivalry.   They actively encouraged Pasteur and Koch to make new discoveries.   Both were given money and institutes to carry out their work.

Industry, Science and Technology
The much improved microscope allowed bacteria to be studied.
- Koch used industrial chemical dyes to stain bacteria
- Koch also used contemporary cameras to photograph his experiments

Individual Brilliance
Both men were intelligent, persistent, and determined
Both spoke in public at the risk of abuse from doubters

Chance Events
Chamberlain’s ‘mistake’ when Pasteur was researching a vaccine for a chicken cholera.
The surprise arrival of Joseph Meister allowed Pasteur to test his rabies...