The Multi-Store Model

The Multi- Store Model (MSM)

Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) produced one of the best known memory models it is the multi-store model (MSM).

The MSM supports that we have separate stores for Long Term Memory (LTM) and Short Term Memory (STM).The information enters the Sensory Memory which has a duration of 1/2 to 2 seconds, if the information is attended to it moves to the STM(Gross, R. 2010). The information is stored in the STM for a duration of 15-30 seconds and only moves to the LTM if rehearsal takes place. The information can remain in the LTM for an unlimited amount of time. If rehearsal does not take place, then the information is forgotten from the STM through the process of displacement or decay (Gross, R. 2010).

Two strengths to support the MSM are the study of brain damaged patients for example, the H.M case study, he was unable to make LTM but his STM was unaffected (McLeod, S. 2008). This suggests that there are separate LTM and STM stores thus supporting the MSM. Another strength of the MSM is the study carried out by Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) the Serial Position Effect. This study says that the probability of recalling a word depends on its position in a list. In the study one group of participants recalled the last words better (recency effect) this is an example of STM. The other group recalled the first words better (primary effect) this is an example of LTM. The middle words (asymptote) were recalled the least (Gross, R. 2010). This supports that there are separate stores for the STM and LTM thus also supporting the MSM.
The weaknesses of the MSM are the model suggests that rehearsal helps to transfer the information to the LTM.   However,   there are many things we do not need to rehearse but are still in the LTM (e.g. riding a bike) and also, some things we do rehearse (e.g. revision for exams) we are sometimes unable to remember(McLeod, S. 2007). This suggests that rehearsal is not as necessary as Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) state it...