The Battle of Marathon

The Battle of Marathon
The battle of Marathon is one of history's most famous military engagements, reknown for its astounding military tactics. It was held between the Persians and the Greeks in 490 BC, with the Persians endeavouring to carry out Darius’order to avenge Sardis. Herodotus states that there were approximately 20 000 to 30 000 Persians including cavalry, and in the Greeks, 9000 Athenians and 1000 Plateans. After the Persians destroyed Eretria, they landed at the Beachhead of Marathon, 42 Km away from Athens, a plain that was suitable for the maneuvering of the cavalry.
The Greeks set up their position in the foothills of Mt Agriliki, hoping to acquire the help of the Spartans, who could not come until the next full moond due to their religious festival, Carnaea.
According to Herodotus, or four days, neither the Persians or the Greeks were able to make an advance, and each day the Persians would stand in formation, taunting the Greeks. Although the Greeks were fully trained and united, unlike the Persians who reached a language barrier and were untrained, the cavalry prevented the Greeks from attacking. Herodotus also stated that on the fourth day, Artapheres took a gamble and loaded the 5000 cavalry back onto the ships, to sail to Athens to attack a presumably unguarded city during the cover of the night. However, Greek spies reported back to Miltiades, who took this opportunity, Chairos, to attack the Persians, using his knowledge of the Persian fighting methods that he had seen in a previous battle planned his battle tactics. Herodotus states that Miltiades spread the army in a thing long line, four men wide, rather than usual eight men, that extended past the width of the Persian army and placed stronger soldiers and formed phalanx on the wings.   To reduce the number of arrows that hit the men, the hoplites ran towards the Persians as soon as they were in shooting range.
The Persians pushed the weak centre back, but could not break the...