Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning (Pg 566)---When adolescents are faced with a problem, they start with a hypothesis about variables that might affect an outcome, deduce logical, testable inferences, and systematically isolate and combine variables to see which inferences are confirmed.

Propositional Thought (Pg 567)--Young adults can evaluate the logic of verbal statements without referring to real-world circumstances.

Follow-Up Research on Formal Operational Thought(Pg 567)---children find it more difficult than adolescents to inhibit activation of certain knowledge. They are not able to draw conclusions from premises rests on the rules of logic, and not on real-world information.

How Scientific Reasoning Develops (Pg 570)---Metacognitive understanding is at the heart of scientific reasoning according to researchers. Adolescents and adults vary in scientific reasoning skills. Adolescents develop reasoning skills in a similar step-by-step fashion on different types of tasks. In each type of task, adolescents mastered component skills in sequential order by expanding their metacognitive awareness.

Self-Consciousness and Self-Focusing (Pg 571)--- The development of complex, effective thinking leads to dramatic revision in the way adolescents see themselves, others, and the world in general. His or her ability to reflect on their own thoughts, combined with the physical and psychological changes they are undergoing, means that they think more about themselves.

Imaginary Audience (Pg 572)---When an adolescents' belief that they are the focus of everyone else's attention and concern. As a result the adolescent become extremely self-conscious, sometimes going to great lengths to avoid embarrassment.

Personal Fable (Pg 572)---This is a second cognitive distortion. When teenagers are sure that others are observing and thinking about them, they develop an inflated opinion of their own importance.

Idealism and Criticism...