Sociological Theorizing

Theresa Crawford
CJ133- Criminology
Week 3
Chapter 7 & 8 Review Questions

  1) The nature of the sociological theorizing is the existing power relationships between social groups and in the influences that various social phenomena bring to bear on the types of behaviors that tend to characterize groups of people. The assumptions on which sociological perspectives rest are:
  * Social groups, social institutions, the arrangements of society, and social roles all provide the proper focus for criminological study.
  * Group dynamics, group organization, and subgroup relationships form the causal nexus out of which crime develops.
  * The structure of society and its relative degree of organization or disorganization are important factors contributing to the prevalence of criminal behavior.
  * Although it may be impossible to predict the specific behavior of a given individual, statistical estimates of group characteristics are possible. Hence, the probability that a member of a given group will engage in a specific type of crime can be estimated.

The three key sociological explanations are:
  * Crime is the result of an individual’s location within the structure of society
  * Crime is the end product of various social processes, especially inappropriate socialization and social learning.
  * Crime is the product of class struggle
  2) The term social structure is meant by sociologists as the pattern of social organization and the interrelationships among institutions characteristic of a society or institutional arrangements within society. Criminality is recognized as a form of acquired behavior, however, it is depicted as the end result of social injustice, racism, and feelings of disenfranchisement to which existing societal arrangements give rise.
  3) The three types of social structure theories are social disorganization theory, strain theory, and culture conflict theory. The social disorganization theory...