So What Is Research Anyway?


So What Is Research Anyway?
Darlene F, Russ-Eft

Research findings take the form, roughly, of "X is Y" or "the probability of
an X having the feature Y is p"; in other words, they are states of the "is"
form, [Phillips, 1980, p, 19]
The outcome of research is new knowledge, obtained through an orderly,
investigative process, [Swanson, 1997, p, 10]
Traditionally, research has been conceptualized as the systematic, objective,
valid, reliable collection and analysis of empirical data to solve a problem
(applied research) or as a means to build theory and add to the existing
knowledge base (basic research), [Bettis & Gregson, 2001, p, 1]
Research is a cyclical process of steps that typically begins vvith identifying
a research problem or issue of study. It then involves reviewing the
literature, specifying a purpose for the study, collecting and analyzing data,
and forming an interpretation of the information. This process culminates
in a report, disseminated to audiences, that is evaluated and used, , , ,
[Creswell, 2002, p, 8]
Research: (1) careful or diligent search; (2) studious inquiry or examination;
especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and
interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of
new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws;
(3) the collecting of information about a particular subject, [MerriamWebster Online, 2003]
Research can be regarded as a process of asking a question (or a related
series of questions) and then initiating a systematic process to obtain valid
answers to that question, [Meltzoff, 1998, p, 13]
Empirical research involves observation; it requires cases, measures, and
scores. Not all types of research [are] empirical. For example, computer
simulations generate scores from random number routines, , , , Analytical


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