Construction Technology

Construction Technology
Excavation means to dig out the material in order to construct or rebuild any structure. Generally excavation is done to empty the desired area and then refilling it according to the new requirements with the materials and then leveling it.
There are many factors that should be taken into the consideration before starting the actual excavation process. The state of the ground mass that needs to be excavated should be checked beforehand because during the process the ground area under work tends to change its state. Stress changes occur mostly resulting in horizontal movement of the ground, which is then generally followed by the increase in vertical stresses. This increase in vertical stresses is due to the lowering of water level.
Building damage due to ground movements
Movements of this level in the ground are highly dangerous for tall building or the buildings with trivial understructure. These buildings tend to twirl, contort and relocate itself due to the heavy ground movements. If the stresses increase beyond the tolerable level of the building, it can cause building to sustain permanent damage.
The structural harm that affects the solidity of the structure is usually due to tectonic movements that cause deforms and cracks in beams and load bearing walls.
Design of retaining wall
Designing an earth retaining wall system for the excavation purposes requires ultimate limit states and serviceable limits state to be properly applied. Ultimate limit is considered ok If there is sufficient soil around it and serviceability limit state is considered to be ok with the onset of excessive distortion and deformation.
Hydraulic failure
Analysis needs to be done to prevent hydraulic failure if the ground water in the retained sides present is above   of the excavation base. Piping can cause unsteadiness in the base, if the wall is not submerged in the required depth. These traits needs to the...