Roman and Grrek Culture

Roman’ Culture Greek’s Culture
    According to tradition, early Rome was ruled by KINGS elected by the people.
 The king's executive power was conferred by a POPULAR ASSEMBLY made up of all arms-bearing citizens.
 The king turned for advice to a council of nobles, called the SENATE.
 Each senator had lifelong tenure and the members of this group and their families constituted the PATRICIAN class.
 The other class of Romans, the PLEBEIANS (commoners) included small farmers, artisans, and many clients (dependents of patrician landowners). In return for a livelihood, the clients gave their patrician patrons political support in the ASSEMBLY
The POLIS (city-state) consisted of a city and its surrounding plains and valleys.   The nucleus of the polis was the elevated, fortified site called the ACROPOLIS where people could take refuge from attack. With the revival of commerce, a TRADING CENTER developed below the acropolis.

509-133 B.C.
 In 509 B.C., according to tradition, the PATRICIANS expelled the last Etruscan king and established a REPUBLIC.
 The power to rule was transferred to two new officials called CONSULS.
Elected annually from the patrician class, the consul exercised their power in the interests of that class  Four major TYPES OF GOVERNMENT evolved in ancient Greece: Monarchy (rule of a king) limited by an aristocratic council and a popular assembly.
 Oligarchy (rule of the few) arising when the aristocratic council ousted the king and abolished the assembly.
 Tyranny (rule by one who ruled without legal authority) riding to power on the discontent of the lower classes.
 Democracy (rule of the people), the outstanding political achievement of the Greeks.

 For more than two centuries following the establishment of the Republic, the plebeians struggled for political and social equality.
 Outright civil war was averted by the...