Richard Layard Stated That "Happiness Comes from Outside and Within". Explain This Statement.

Richard Layard stated that “Happiness comes from outside and within”.
Explain this statement, drawing on evidence from Chapters 2 and 4 of this course.

Happiness is a positive feeling, a state of wellbeing that can range between contentment to joy and is something that we all fundamentally desire from life. (Spoors et al, 2007, p.5) Happiness is influenced by many factors both within the person, as well as outside. Inside influences involve the brain, biology and cognitive activity of the individual and outside influences consist of relationships and social identity. (Spoors et al, 2007, p.124) This essay will focus firstly on biological influences and then go on to explore the influence of relationships, before concluding that these inside and outside factors are very much interlinked in affecting the happiness of an individual.
Happiness from within will be dependent on many factors. These include activity in the brain, the individual’s thinking patterns and perception, genetic dispositions and the effects of brain damage.
An example of how genetics can be a contributor to happiness is in a study by Avshalom Caspi et al (2003, cited in Spoors et al, 2007, p.123). 1032 people were studied for 23 years from the age of 3 to 26 to assess the effect of a gene responsible for serotonin production. The gene (5-HTT transporter gene) has two forms (short and long) in three combinations. The results showed that the combination of two long genes, producing the most serotonin, caused the individual to be least susceptible to depression, and the two short gene combination, responsible for producing the least serotonin rendered the individual most susceptible to depression. The study shows how genetics can play a part in an individual’s wellbeing and ability to cope with adversities in life.  
Brain damage is another example of something within determining happiness. In 1985, Clive Wearing suffered brain damage as a result of a flu virus that attacked his brain....