Reformation Assignment


  1. 1309-1378 “Babylonian Captivity”: Papacy in Avignon

      • The elected pope Clement V moved the papal court to France primarily for political reasons; it was the longest period of almost 70 years when the papal court remained away from Rome. All seven popes of this period were French, as were most of the cardinals, which aroused English and German bitterness. During the Avignon papacy the cardinals began to play a stronger role in church government, church and clergy were reformed, missionary efforts were expanded, and popes tried to settle royal rivalries and establish peace. The heavy French influence damaged the prestige of the papacy, however, and in 1377 Gregory XI returned to Rome. The cardinals elected a new pope who took the Avignon seat, becoming the first of a line of antipopes and beginning the Western Schism.

  2. 1337–1453 The Hundred Years’ War between England and France

      • A war that lasted for 116 years, it was started because of the land the English king and aristocracy owned in France that the French little by little started to invade upon, and the claim of the English king, Edward III, to the French throne.   By the end of the war both monarchies became stronger politically and the nobles did not have as much power as they did before. The system of feudalism in both countries began to decline, which gave the lower class of people more freedom of thought. The long war proved to be extremely difficult for the people, it led them to have questions and wanting an explanation for their woes that the Catholic Church could not provide, the outcome of the 100 hundred years war shifted people’s thinking in the direction of change that paved the way to a period of Reformation.

  3.   1348-1350 Black Death decimates European population

      • The Black Death was a fatal, gruesome disease that wiped out most of Europe’s population in the 14th century. Since tens of thousands of people died...