Dissertation writers need a referencing system whereby other works can be referred to briefly in the text so as not to interrupt the flow, with the full details in an alphabetical list at the end of the text. Probably the most frequently used referencing systems are those called the Harvard, APA (American Psychological Association), MLA (Modern Languages Association) and CMS (Chicago Manual of Style) styles. When researchers talk about a ‘style’, they might mean merely a system of in-text citations and the bibliographic format of the related references, or they might be referring to the editorial style that has been formulated for consistency in all the written material. ‘Editorial style’ concerns uniform use of punctuation and abbreviations, construction of tables, selection of headings, presentation of statistics, as well as many other elements that are a part of every manuscript, besides the format of in-text citations and references. If you are unsure what your institution means when it tells you to use a style, you should clarify with your institution/advisor.

The Chicago Manual of Style
The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) is used mostly in the humanities and allows either author-date citations or footnotes/endnotes. Such notes can include comments as well as the bibliographic details of the item cited. There should also be a bibliography listing authors in alphabetical order at the end of the text. Insert the note number automatically as superscript after the relevant word in the sentence by pressing Control+Alt+f in MSWord. If there is punctuation, insert it after the punctuation, except for dashes, which are preceded. Footnote numbers should start again for each chapter but endnote numbers run throughout the document. CMS style rules and guidelines are set out in latest edition of The Chicago Manual of Style. Please note that there are many interpretations of the CMS styles and this guide too can only be...