Physical Development 0-19 Years

Describe the expected pattern of children and young peoples physical development from birth to nineteen years

Physical development and growth is anything relating to the body. It encompasses Fine and Gross Motor skills, co-ordination, control of muscles, manipulation, movement and the five senses.

Birth - 4 Weeks:

• Uses natural reflexes spontaneously and without control such as facial expressions, Grasp and sucking.
• Spontaneous and uncontrolled movements of the arms and legs.
• Relies strongly on sense of smell, sounds and taste to connect with the world while the sight is developing.
• Lifts head for short periods when lying on the abdomen.

1 - 3 Months:

• Increasing body tone and basic control of the muscles in the arms and legs, and begin to reach out for people and toys.
• Can bear small amounts of weight for short periods of time.
• Grasps toys momentarily.
• Begins to gain control over facial expressions such as smiling.
• Head control and neck strength is becoming stronger.
• Eyes work to focus on faces and objects at close distances. Stares into the distance at lights, large shapes and bold colours to try and develop focus and vision.

3 - 6 Months:

• Greater control over arms, legs and head. For example, turning to look round the room, purposefully reaching out for desired objects and people.
• Begins to roll from front to back, then back to front. Begin to maneuver themselves short distances.
• The back becomes straighter and stronger, can sit with help.
• The legs can bear more weight when upright either held or in a walker or bouncer.
• Little or no head lag when pulled from lying to sitting.
• Hand eye co-ordination begins to develop.
• Focus and distance of sight (how far they can see) improves
• Explores objects using hands, eyes and mouth, especially the tongue.

6 - 9 Months:

• Uses index finger to point.
• Become more mobile as they master rolling and begin to crawl. Backwards and on...