Define electrochemical gradient
is a gradient of electrochemical potential, usually for an ion that can move across a membrane. The gradient consists of two parts, the electrical potential and a difference in the chemical concentration across a membrane.
How ATP synthesis is coupled to an electron transport chain and electrochemical gradient
Oxidative phosphorylation??
Distinguish between Autotrophic and Heterotrophic
Autotrophic- light is energy source
Heterotrophic- digesting organic compounds
Describe the location & structure of chloroplast
Location- embedded in the thylakoid membrane.
Structure- A double membrane surrounding a dense fluid called the stroma and elaborate membrane system called thylakoids, enclosing the thylakoids space. Thylakoid sacs may be stacked to form grana. 
Explain how chloroplast structure relates to its function
Dense stacks of thylakoids efficiently absorb light
Light energy is converted into chemical energy at the thylakoid
Chemical energy used to build carbohydrate in the stroma
Write a summary reaction for photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O + Light Energy -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Carbon dioxide+water+light energy-> glucose+ water (CO2 is reduced to glucose and H2O oxidized to O2)

Explain the role of redox reactions in photosynthesis
H2O is split, electrons are transferred along with hydrogen ions from H2o to CO2, reducing it to sugar. Electrons increase in potential energy as they move from H2o to C6H12O6, this process requires energy (endergonic). Energy boosts are provided by light Light boosts the energy of electrons in water
Those high-energy electrons are added to CO2 = reduction

Describe the relationship between the action spectrum & absorption spectrum
-Action spectrum shows the relative rates of photosynthesis under different wavelengths of light, and represents the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll a. ----Absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a, is the pigment that participates...

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