Philosophy Review

Philosophy Midterm Review sheet
Branches of Philosophy

Metaphysics - the branch of philosophy that treats of first principles, includes ontology and cosmology, and is intimately connected with epistemology. A treatise (4th century b.c.) by Aristotle, dealing with first principles, the relation of universals to particulars, and the teleological doctrine of causation.
Epistemology - The branch of philosophy that studies the nature of knowledge, its presuppositions and foundations, and its extent and validity.
Ethics - that branch of philosophy dealing with values relating to human conduct, with respect to the rightness and wrongness of certain actions and to the goodness and badness of the motives and ends of such actions.
Aesthetics - the branch of philosophy dealing with such notions as the beautiful, the ugly, the sublime, the comic, etc., as applicable to the fine arts, with a view to establishing the meaning and validity of critical judgments concerning works of art, and the principles underlying or justifying such judgments.
Logic – Valid and sound arguments “inductive method”
Ontology - the branch of metaphysics that studies the nature of existence or being as such.
Cosmology - the branch of philosophy dealing with the origin and general structure of the universe, with its parts, elements, and laws, and esp. with such of its characteristics as space, time, causality, and freedom.
Schools of Philosophical Thought
Rationalism - The theory that the exercise of reason, rather than experience, authority, or spiritual revelation, provides the primary basis for knowledge.
Empiricism - the doctrine that all knowledge is derived from sense experience
Sophism - any false argument; fallacy
Pythagoreanism - the doctrines of Pythagoras and his followers, esp. the belief that the universe is the manifestation of various combinations of mathematical ratios
Scholasticism - the system of theological and philosophical teaching predominant in the Middle Ages,...