Paul Bogard

Paul Bogard creates a compelling essay that persuades his audience that the dark of night should be restored to its natural state. Bogard discusses the serious repercussions of little natural light in today’s society. To convey this message more thoroughly, Bogard uses scientific evidence, connections, and rhetorical techniques to help drill the message into the audience’s heads.

By including statistical evidence, the essay is not only boosted in its legitimacy, but also in its appeal to the audience. Shocking facts, that many people probably aren’t informed about, serves as a wake-up call to the audience. “Already the World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen…” This fact shows that there is a negative result of working in the night, and also shows the legitimacy of the evidence by stating it came from the World Health Organization. This serves to fully convince the audience that the fact is true, and the threat is serious. For the people who still don’t see the risk of having too little darkness, Bogard is happy to throw in another heart-pounding statistic. “Sleep disorders have been linked to diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and depression, and recent research suggests one main cause of ‘short sleep’ is long light…” Beautiful scenery from natural darkness, such as “night skies in which meteors left smoky trails across sugary spreads of stars.” However, this is not the only thing night owls lose; they are paying with their health too. On the other hand, health and beautiful scenery aren’t the only reason to preserve natural darkness.

Personal connections are also used inside the passage to help bolster the claim. By being able to relate nightness to a personal level, the audience will feel more inclined to want more natural darkness. “Every religious tradition has considered darkness invaluable for a soulful life...” There are many people who follow religions, and Paul Bogard tactically uses the word...
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