Patanjali Yoga Darshana

Sage Patanjali, one of the early exponents of yoga, codified the yogic system. The first sutra he made is – “ ATHA YOGA ANUSHASANAM” means ‘yoga is a form of inner discipline’
He described Yoga as Chitta Vritti Nirodha. Which means “Yoga is restraining the mind (Chitta), from taking various forms (Vritti). He stated that yoga is a method by which the practitioner can control, alter and direct the VRITTIS, the modifications of the mind, thus allowing him to experience the inner self.   Patanjali has mentioned five Vrittis namely – PRAMANA (Right knowledge), Viparyaya (Indiscrimination),Vikalpa (Verbal Delusion, Nidra (Sleep), Smriti (Memory). The methods for restraining the mind here are :   i. ABHYASA is the constant endeavoring to get a stable state in restraining the mind. Abhyasa becomes firmly grounded by long constant practice with Shraddha (faith), Virya(vigour), Smriti (Memory), Samadhi (merging the mind in the subject), Pradnya (High sense of perception). Ii. Vairagya means non attachment which comes to those who have given up their thirst for the vishayas i.e. object, either seen or heard.
Chittavikshepa means the obstacles in Abhyasa. They are Vyadhi (Disease), Styana (Languor, Mental laziness), Samshaya (Doubt), Pramada (lack of enthusiasm), Alasya (lethargy, Avirati (Clinging sense of enjoyment), Alabdha Bhumikatva (Non achievement of the state), Anavasthitatvani (Instability). Coexistent of Vikshepa are Dukkha (pain, grief), Daurmanasya (mental distress), Angamejayatvam (Tremors of body), Shavasaprashvasa (Irregular breathing). The five Klesha are Avidya (mistaken realities), Asmita (Egoism), Raga (Passion, attachment or desire), Dwesha (Aversion) Abhinivesha (Clinging to life).
Patanjali has mentioned in his treatise on Yoga that Klesha cannot be eliminated suddenly, but through Yoga, it can be reduced gradually. In fact, the principles of non-hoarding, non-attachment and non stealing give us the message of not having...