P2 Psychology

The application of behaviourist perspectives in health and social care.

Operant conditioning is a type of behaviour modification which can be used to either decrease or increase the likelihoods of a certain aspect of a behaviour will occur. The process relies on the idea that organisms (a person) respond to stimuli, and that if they can be taught to associate a specific stimulus with a particular behaviour, they will be more likely to engage in or avoid the behaviour, depending on the type of stimulus involved. This approach first came to notice B.F Skinner (s famous psychologist) were of his work was carried out in the 20th century. His work was mainly with the use of rats and pigeons to us e them to discover new ways of leering style and behaviours. Skinner was created a very famous box which is still used today some science experiment call the Skinner box. This bow was designed with a lever which when pressed by a rate inside it would produce a food pellet to the rat when pressed accidentally. After a while the rate will begin to realise that when it presses the lever a food pellet will be released so there for will repeated this action for to receive food. The pellet of food in this situation is a product of reinforcing as the rat will like more of the food an can get it when he wants by pressing the lever which in turn increases the possibility of this behaviour being repeated. There are two different types of stimuli which can be used in operant conditioning. One involves reinforcement, which is designed to encourage an organism to repeat a behaviour. In positive reinforcement, something pleasant is added to the environment as a reward. In negative reinforcement something unpleasant is taken away.

Sigmund Freud also developed a theory called psycho sexual theory. This theory explains why certain individuals have a sexual desire for a particular part of their body at that precise stage but if the need of a childe is accounted for at each...