P1: Unit 5: Outline the Functions of the Main Cell Components

Outline the functions of the main cell components
Each individual is composed of billions of microscopic units called cells. These carry out various chemical reactions and processes that make up the essence of life.   There are various types of tissue which form organs that preform particular functions which are commonly known as organ or body systems. There are four main parts to a cell; Plasma/Cell membrane, Cytoplasm, Nucleus and Cell Organelles.
Plasma/Cell membrane:
The plasma/cell membrane is a phospho-lipid-protein bi-layer; the lipids are small fatty molecules in two layers (bi-layer) with larger protein molecules inserted at intervals partly or completely through the bi-layer. The lipid molecules are phospholipids, the two lipid chains are insoluble in water and the phosphate head is water soluble. The fluid which surrounds the cells and the cytoplasm are watery environments next to the phosphate heads. Protein molecules create channels throughout the membrane to allow substances pass to and from the cell, they also act as identity markers for molecules such as hormones. This structure is also known as the ‘fluid mosaic model’ of the cell membrane.
Cytoplasm is a semi-fluid, similar to a gel consistency which the capability to move slowly, there are various chemical reactions which occur here, the term for these reactions is metabolism. The cytoplasm is a complex storage of sugars such as glucose and melanin. Melanin is the dark pigment responsible for their skin and hair colour.
The nucleus is as dark shape and is normally the largest structure inside the cell; it takes up the dyes and strains easily. Most cells have a single, central, spherical nucleus but there are many variations. Muscle cells have many nuclei so they are called ‘multinucleate’; some red blood cells lose their nucleus during development which is called ‘anucleate’ and some white blood cells have distant lobed nuclei.
The nuclear membrane is similar to...