Osmosis Lab

Osmosis & Diffusion - Lab 1  | | |Introduction:
All molecules have kinetic energy and are constantly in motion.   This motion causes the molecules to bump into each other and move in different directions.   The result is diffusion.   Diffusion is the random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. This will continue until dynamic equilibrium is reached; no net movement will occur.   Osmosis is a special kind of diffusion.   It is the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane. A selectively permeable membrane means that the membrane will only allow certain molecules through such as water, small solutes, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and glucose, because no additional ATP is required. The membrane will not let ions, nonpolar molecules, or large molecules through because extra ATP is needed for them to travel across the membrane.   Active transport is how molecules (such as ions) move against the concentration gradient.   Additional ATP is required to perform this process.
Water will travel from an area of high water potential to an area of low water potential.   Water potential is the measure of free energy of water in a certain solution.   It is measured by using the Greek letter psi (ψ).   The formula for figuring water potential is:
                ψ         =             ψp         +   ψs  
Water Potential   =   Pressure Potential   +   Solute Potential  
Water potential is affected by 2 different factors.   They are the addition of a solute and the pressure potential.   If a solute is added to the water, then the water potential is lowered.   If more pressure is placed on the water, then the potential is raised. The addition of a solute and water potential are inversely proportional.   Pressure being placed onto the water and the potential of the water are directly proportional.
Solutions can have three relationships with each other; isotonic, hypertonic, or hypotonic.   When the solutions have the same...