Operations Research

Operations research also referred to as decision science, or management science is an interdisciplinary mathematical science that focuses on the effective use of technology by organizations. In contrast, many other science and engineering disciplines focus on technology giving secondary considerations to its use.
Operations research is a branch of applied mathematics that finds optimal solutions to complex problems using an interdisciplinary approach. Such problems include profit maximization, manufacturing optimization or minimum (of loss, risk, or cost) of some real-world objective. Operations research is closely related to industrial engineering. Originating in military efforts before World War II, its techniques have grown to concern problems in a variety of industries.
It is said that in 1832, English mathematician Charles Babbage published his book “On the Economy of Machinery and Manufacture,” which was the first work known as operations research. The work was rooted on his travels to many industrial facilities in order to understand the manufacturing process. He observed that high skilled workers often the work often performed by lower skilled workers. He suggested that low skilled laborers be available to perform those tasks to reduce labor costs. British experimental physicist Patrick Blackett was another founder of operations research. During WWII he served as the Director of Operations Research under the British naval command. His team made recommendations on armor placement on RAF aircraft. Blackett and his team also determined that the size of warship convoys could be optimized to protect merchant ships. His team eventually found that the probability of detection did not vary significantly with convoy size therefore making large convoys more efficient. During WWII, close to one thousand men and women in Britain were engaged in operational research. About two hundred operational research scientists worked...