In this essay the author will explain the key concepts of two major psychological theories of individual development.   The author will also look at the evidence on how to support these two theories.   And explain how these two theories relate to an individual’s health i.e. anxiety and how health care workers can utilize these theories to improve the health of each individual.
Psychoanalysis is based on the theories of Sigmund Freud who was born in 1856; Freud worked with wealthy woman in Vienna who suffered from neurotic attacks.   Freud postulated that humans had a topographic mind (Appendix 1).   There are three parts of the mind; the conscious is a part of the mind which we are aware of.   The preconscious is where we have memories, and thoughts which are temporarily forgotten.   Although they can be brought to consciousness if necessary.   Hidden below these is the unconscious, this was the part of the human psyche which kept conflict and traumas that occurred earlier in life (Hayes and Orrell 1988).   He also saw the human personality or the mind as being composed of the different, but at the same time acting and working dimensions (Appendix 2) id; ego; superego; (Scottish Further Education Support Unit 2007).
In Freud’s theory the ‘id’ is present from birth, and to selfishly think of our own wellbeing and happiness.   The ‘id’ seeks to maximise our own pleasure without considering the consequences on how our own pleasure-seeking behaviour will affect others.   The ‘superego’ on the other hand was to oppose the feelings and drives which came from the ‘id’ ‘superego’ are guilt driven.   Then there is the ‘ego’.   The ‘ego’ will look at what’s happening in the real world, and support either the ‘id’ position or the ‘superego’ position.   The ‘ego’ act on reality principle (Scottish Further Education Support Unit 2007).
Freud’s thoughts were that each individual also had his/her own personal history, he deliberated that the first five years of a child’s life made an...