Non Iv Contrast in Ct

“Contrast medium is a substance that is radio opaque when exposed to x-rays. The administration of such a compound allows for examination by a radiologist of the tissue or organ being filled”
Contrast media is used to help improve visualization of normal and abnormal structures. “the degree of enhancement is related to the method of contrast administration and the dose and concentration of contrast received as well as the delay between contrast administration and image acquisition”
Since 1895 when x-rays were first discovered contrast media has progressed in development through history. In 1896 the first contrast study was performed as a intravenous urography. In 1920 the 1st iodinated contrast medium was used. During the 1950 and 60’s low toxicity and non ionic contrast medium was produced. Today contrast media is a highly developed and routinely used medium.
Contrast media can be divided into two types positive and negative. Positive contrast media have a higher attenuation properties in comparison to the body’s tissues and thus show up as white/ grey on an image. Example of positive are barium and iodine. Negative contrast agents have lower attenuation properties in comparison to the body’s soft tissue and thus show up as dark/ grey on an image. Examples of negative contrast agents are air, oxygen, water and milk.

The administration of non-intravenous contrast media in CT can be performed by having the patient take it orally, by performing it rectally by way of an enema, or by inhalation.
Patient preparation is usually required when studies of the GI tract and abdominal organs are requested using contrast media. It is important to eliminate as much food as possible from the stomach and intestines in order to help the sensitivity of the CT exam using contrast. Food and food remains can mimic disease when the contrast is present so a fleet kit may be required to cleanse the colon the night before or over a couple of days prior to the exam. Also a regimen...