3.1 Motivation
Motivation is the activation or energization of goal-oriented behavior. Motivation may be internal or external. According to various theories, motivation may be rooted in the basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs. (
 Work Motivation: The psychological forces that determine the direction of a     person’s behavior in an organization, a person’s level of effort, and a person’s level of persistence.
Three key element of work motivation are as following:
1. Direction of Behavior
Direction of behavior refers to the behavior employees choose to perform from the many potential behaviors they could perform.
For example:
Employees can be motivated in functional ways that help an organization achieve its goals or in dysfunctional ways that hinder an organization from achieving its goals. They want employees to be motivated to come to work on time, perform their assigned tasks dependably, come up with good ideas, and help others. They do not want employees to come to work late, ignore rules concerning health and safety, or pay lip service to quality.
2. Level of effort
How hard does a person work to perform a chosen behavior? It is not enough for an organization to motivate employees to perform desired functional behaviors; the organization must also motivate them to work hard at these behaviors.
3. Level of Persistence
When faced with obstacles, roadblocks, and stone walls, how hard does a person keep trying to perform a chosen behavior successfully?

 Theory of work motivation
1. Need Theory
Need theory focuses on the customer side. In order to determine which outcomes motivate employees the most, managers must first learn which needs employees are trying to satisfy.

2. Expectancy Theory
Regardless of which outcomes are available employees will not be motivated to contribute their inputs to the organization unless they believe it will result...