In the Open Door Note of 1900, the United States enunciated a policy of supporting the territorial integrity of China. Why did the United States adopt this policy? How consistently did we defend it in the period of 1900-1941?
  * Was not defended very well
  * A policy supported by the United States beginning in 1899 that stated that all major powers, including the United States, should have an equal right to trade in China.
  * Led by John Hay
  * As China’s Qing (Manchu) dynasty weakened, European powers carved out spheres of influence where they exercised political leverage and obtained exclusive commercial privileges.
  * Although he knew they could not force the Europeans to leave China, Secretary of State John Hay was determined to protect American missionaries and commercial interests.
  * In 1899, Hay sent the nations with spheres of influence in China a note calling for open access to China for American investment and commercial interests.
  * Known as the Open Door, the policy underscored America’s commitment to free trade and opposition to obstacles that thwarted international commerce.
  * SFI
      * Nine- Power Treaty
      * The Lansing-Ishii Agreement

It is a statement of U.S. foreign policy toward China. Issued by U.S. secretary of state John Hay (1899), the statement reaffirmed the principle that all countries should have equal access to any Chinese port open to trade. In 1902, the United States government protested that Russian encroachment in Manchuria after the Boxer Rebellion was a violation of the Open Door Policy. When Japan replaced Russia in southern Manchuria after the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) the Japanese and U.S. governments pledged to maintain a policy of equality in Manchuria. In finance, American efforts to preserve the Open Door Policy led (1909) to the formation of an international banking consortium through which all Chinese railroad loans would agree (1917) to another exchange of notes between...