Piaget Theory

Born in Switzerland in 1896, Jean Piaget, studied psychology, after a series of cognition tests in children, he came up with his theory of cognitive development. Piaget's theory is made up of four key stages. these stages are known as schemas. J. Piaget (1983)
Schemas are mental structures   used to simplify our understanding of the world around us. According to Bruce (1996) ''schemas are pattern of linked behaviours.
Piaget focuses on assimilation and accommodation, assimilation is how children view the outside world. while accommodation occurs when a child has to accumulate new ideas that doesn't fit in with existing ones. J. Piaget (1983)

Four stages of cognitive development
Sensorimotor: birth to age 2, an important milestone to this stage is object performance, a child realized an object still exist even when it can't be seen, they can hear a rattle but cannot see it, Piaget, J (1983)
Preoperational: ages 2 to 7, language development is the key to this stage, make believe is also a big part of this development, a child may fly a pretend aeroplane. Piaget, J (1983)

Concrete Operational: age 7 to 11, a huge development in this stage is understanding reversibility and the order of mental categories. McGarrigle. J, Donaldson. M (1974)

Formal Operational: 11 years into adulthood, deductive logics and   mantel operational thinking is used to solved problems, a child can be asked to solve a mental problem without the use of objects (Brian & Mukherji, 2005)

Vygotsky Theory
Lev Vygotsky, born in Russia in 1896, later studied philosophy. Vygotsky went on to developed,   Zone of   Proximal Development. Vygotsky theory highlights the role of social interaction, as he strongly believes the community plays an active role in a child's development.
According to Vygotsky, ''learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human physiological function''. Mind in society,...