9- Define and describe what leadership is and discuss how one knows if leadership even exists or not. Also, provide at least two concrete examples of “leadership in action.” Explain your answer in sufficient detail to demonstrate your understanding.

Leadership can be defined "as the ability to inspire confidence and support among the people who are needed to achieve organizational goals" (Dubrin, 2011, p. 2).   Some view a leader simply as one that others will follow.   Others state that leadership involves the ability to guide and direct others or to organize people into a group that can achieve a common goal.  

Leadership exists in many different forms.   I have seen teenagers utilize peer pressure (positive or negative) to get those in their social group to modify their behavior.   The individual at the top of the "pecking order" in the group has leadership in the group.   In many cases, the fear of being removed from the group will cause many teens to acquiesce to the desires of the group - most of which are directed by the leader.   In many cases, negative reinforcement is the key component in compliance.   Many a teen is the unfortunate recipient of physical injustice at the hands of larger and stronger classmates.   However, there are also many instances in which positive reinforcement is utilized.   My oldest two children are in social circles in which there is an expectation of following the rules - of law, of the "Golden Rule", of doing what's right even when no one else is looking.   In their peer group, the leaders are not the biggest and the strongest, they are the ones that can live out what they profess to believe.   They are the ones that can bring about the most positive outcomes in most any situation.   They see the good in most everything.   This is not out of naiveté but out of a firm belief in being thankful for what comes your way - even trials.   As a father, I am so thankful that my children are in peer groups like this rather than what I chose as a...