“Describe and evaluate Carl Jung’s theory concerning personality types and show how they might usefully help a therapist to determine therapeutic goals”.
In this essay I will explore the origins/background of “type” theories; introduce Jung’s theory of Personality Types, mention some modern development; consider how the idea of personality types might be useful to a therapist; give some thoughts about my own learning and development; end with a summary.
In order to properly consider Jung’s theory personality types, I will briefly introduce the ancient origins of type theory.
Hippocrates, ancient Greek physician (c460BC – 370BC), is referred to as the Father of Western Medicine, due to his contributions to the field. His work and teachings gave rise to a body of medicine known as the Hippocratic School of medicine (Adams, 1891).

Hippocrates worked on the assumption that all diseases had a natural cause rather than a supernatural one. Central to Hippocrates' views was that human beings consisted of a soul and a body, and that illness resulted from an imbalance of bodily fluids, referred to as the Four Humors, which were naturally equal in proportion and which had to be restored to balance in order for a person to be free from illness (Adams, 1891).

The four humors of Hippocratic medicine are black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood. This theory was closely related to the theory of the four elements: earth, fire, water and air; earth predominantly present in the black bile, fire in the yellow bile, water in the phlegm, and all four elements present in the blood. It was believed that when a patient was suffering from a surplus or imbalance of one of these four fluids, then said patients’ temperament and physical health would be directly influenced (Sudhoff, 1926).

From Hippocrates onward, the humoral theory was adopted by other Greek physicians, like Galen (AD 129 – 216), who developed many of his teachings, ultimately attempting to devise a comprehensive...