John Wycliffe

John Wycliffe 1330 -1384
John Wycliffe was a theologian, philosopher, lay preacher and translator.   He produced some of the first hand written English translations of the Bible and helped to make them widely available. He was an early critic of the Papacy and the clerical basis of the Catholic Church; he argued scripture was primary source basis of Christianity.
John Wycliffe was born in the North Ridings, Yorkshire. His family members were of Saxon origins. As a young man he moved to Oxford to study natural science, mathematics and theology. He studied at Balliol collegeˈbeɪliəl, where he would later became the Master of Balliol.
He became known for being an excellent scholar with a thorough θʌr.ə understanding of the law.
In 1365 he was made head of Canterbury Hall by Simon Islip   the Archbishop of Canterbury. When the Pope (Urban V 1362-1370 Pope at Avignon/ Gregory XI 1370-1378 Pope   at Avignon last French Pope   returns to Rome) pressed England to send taxes, Wycliffe was instrumental in drafting a reply arguing that there was no basis for demanding a tribute from a foreign power.The pope, keen not to antagonise the English ,   soon withdrew his request.
In 1374, Wycliffe also served as a negotiator in the Peace Congress at Bruges - between England and France; this furthered his political influence and stature.
On his return from Bruges, with support from his patron John of Gaunt, he wrote tracts and books, expressing his views. (The most important was Summa theologiae) This included denunciations of collecting indulgences for the remission of sin. He also asserted the right of the King to take away property from the church, if justified.
Wycliffe became a popular preacher in London, and many reformers allied himself to his views. Though as might be expected, he also attracted increased criticism from those with powerful positions in the church, who were now threatened by Wycliffe's talk of reform.
He said that the faults of the Church came...