Intelligence Quotient Essay

IQ tests have been used over the last century to measure intelligence.   They can have an impact on someone’s future depending on the strength of their results.  

Intelligence Quotient (IQ) tests were developed by Alfred Binet in the late nineteenth century to highlight children who have a learning disability.   The tests were based on a set of questions which were marked against an “average” child of the same chronological age.   These tests were developed by William Stern who put in a formula to average IQ scores by calculating a person’s mental age divided by their chronological age and multiplying it by one hundred which gives an average score of one hundred to measure against. This was further developed by Wechsler’s Adult intelligence Scale that takes into account verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, waking memory and process speed.   This version is used today in all walks of life and is constantly being tweaked to meet the market’s requirements.

Whilst it may be argued that an above average score could be a strength some psychologist make the argument that they are only suitable for certain sectors of the population.This would place those in the population of similar backgrounds at an advantage. People could be distanced by culture, social status or experience and this has in the past been used in a racist manner to portray certain cultures as less intelligent than those in the West which gave rise to inequality. (Byford, McAvoy and Banyard, 2014, p.41)

John C. Raven tried to create a test that would negate any cultural bias which used shapes and pattern rather than language.   Participants are asked to complete a set of patterns.   Initially this could be thought to be culturally neutral, however upon further thought it can be seen that the test would still not be fair for some cultures in understanding what they need to do.   Those from the Middle East or China for example do not read from left to right which is how the tests are laid out....