Information Paper

Subject:   The V22 Osprey and the USMC

1.   Purpose.   To educate Classmates on the development and use of the V22 by the USMC
2.   Executive Summary.   The V-22 Osprey is an American multi-mission, military, tilt rotor aircraft with both a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL), and short takeoff and landing (STOL) capability. It is designed to combine the functionality of a conventional helicopter with the long-range, high-speed cruise performance of a turboprop aircraft.
3.   Discussion.  

a. The failure of the Iran hostage rescue mission in 1980 demonstrated to the United States military a need for "a new type of aircraft, that could not only take off and land vertically but also could carry combat troops, and do so at speed." The U.S. Department of Defense began the Joint-service Vertical take-off/landing Experimental (JVX) aircraft program in 1981, under U.S. Army leadership. The U.S. Navy/Marine Corps was given the lead in 1983. The JVX combined requirements from the Marine Corps, Air Force, Army and Navy. In addition the United States Air Force has their version.

b. Fixed wing aircraft have the advantage of speed, cruise altitude and range when compared to helicopters, Similarly, helicopters are agile and are capable of carrying out flight maneuvers impossible for fixed wing aircraft. The V-22 Osprey is a tilt rotor aircraft with a mixed capability of both a fixed wing aircraft and a helicopter which allows it to operate as both. This gives it an advantage over both types of flying machines. This benefit was what the United States Marine Corps (USMC) was looking for that led to the development of the Osprey.

c.   With the development of Osprey the USMC was trying to develop a vehicle that would increase its standoff advantage during military assaults, which means being able to attack the enemy from a distance while simultaneously hampering the ability of the defending forces to attack the invading fleet at sea. In this kind of operation, range,...