Information Age

The Information Age

1. Processing means any action that produces information from data, such as finding totals, averages, ratios, and trends.

2. Names, addresses, and educational experience of employment candidates, consumers, and members of professional organizations are some examples. They are data, but are also used as information, because they are often needed as is, without processing.

3. Some examples of data that are used as information:

(1) The entire record of an employee who is considered for a promotion to a high position; the record was data when first entered when the employee was hired, and then periodically updated; all of it is used as information now. This information can also be used to analyze labor expenses or staffing levels for a business (department, division, etc.).

(2) Management invited all employees to select a Christmas present from a list of four options; the entire list will later be used to deliver the items to the employees. Three examples of data that must be processed: To purchase the items, the quantities of each of the four items must be calculated so that they can be ordered. When purchasing raw materials for the production of an item, the purchasing manager must receive data on forecast sales from the marketing manager so that she can know quantities required. The information is the result of manipulating data collected in a market research survey of a large sample of the targeted population.

(3) An investor who invests in stock according to its past performance must have information in the form of trends. This information is the result of processing thousands of daily price changes of many stocks.

4. Some examples of subsystems are:

(1) Government agencies (all working to enhance the welfare of the countries citizens).

(2) The steering wheel, transmission box, and fuel-injection mechanism of a car (all working together to ensure a smooth and safe ride)

(3) A soccer team (training and...