Infectious Diseases in Kenya

Infectious Diseases and its Control

2.   Introduction
2.   Typhoid Fever
4.   Malaria
6.   Tinea Corporis (Ringworm)
6.   Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia)
8.   Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
10. Reference List
14. Appendix 1
15. Appendix 2
16. Appendix 3
17. Appendix 4
18. Appendix 5

Kenya is a country in the sub-Saharan region of Africa with a population of 44.86 million in 2014 (World Book nd). It is a developing country with poor sanitation and lack of medical treatment which is why serious diseases are prevalent. It is strongly recommended that anyone travelling to Kenya seek medical advice before travelling as vaccinations may be available (CDC 2015). This report will define five of these diseases, Typhoid Fever, Malaria, Schistosomiasis, Ringworm and Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and how to prevent and treat them (CDC 2015)
Typhoid Fever
NHS Choices (2015) describes Typhoid fever as a bacterial infection caused by Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium (S.Typhi). It is found in the faeces and, less commonly, urine. NHS Choices (2015) also states that Typhoid fever is highly contagious and transmitted through the faecal-oral route by direct contact with contaminated faeces or urine, contact with contaminated food or water, poor personal hygiene, and anal or oral sex with a carrier. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC 2013) states that there is a high prevalence of Typhoid fever in Kenya due to poor sanitation and overcrowding which causes 20million illnesses with approximately 10% of patients dying. According to NHS Choices (2015) the symptoms usually develop 1-3 weeks after exposure and include fever, stomach pain, nausea, diarrhoea, and confusion due to the fever. Medscape (2015) describes S.Typhi as a gram-negative enteric bacillus belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. It has flagella to help it move and specialised fimbriae to attach its self to the Peyer Patches where it enters the bloodstream. S.Typhi also has Vi...